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Tea Research

Jasmine tea in a gaiwan tea cup
mandarin puerh in a gaiwan tea cup
jasmine pearl green tea in a gaiwan tea cup
Tea Research




The role of tea consumption in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains unclear in cohort studies. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the associations of tea consumption with the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.



We included 100,902 general Chinese adults from the project of Prediction for ASCVD Risk in China (China-PAR) in 15 provinces across China since 1998. Information on tea consumption was collected through standardized questionnaires. Outcomes were identified by interviewing study participants or their proxies, and checking hospital records and/or death certificates. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals related to tea consumption.



During a median follow-up of 7.3 years, 3683 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, 1477 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease deaths, and 5479 all-cause deaths were recorded. Compared with never or non-habitual tea drinkers, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval among habitual tea drinkers was 0.80 (0.75–0.87), 0.78 (0.69–0.88), and 0.85 (0.79–0.90) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease incidence, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality, respectively. Habitual tea drinkers had 1.41 years longer of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease-free years and 1.26 years longer of life expectancy at the index age of 50 years. The observed inverse associations were strengthened among participants who kept the habit during the follow-up period.



Tea consumption was associated with reduced risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, especially among those consistent habitual tea drinkers.


Keywords: Tea consumption, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, prospective cohort study, Chinese population


Tea flavonoids have been suggested to offer potential benefits to cardiovascular health. This review synthesized the evidence on the relation between tea consumption and risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among generally healthy adults. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and Ovid CAB Abstract databases were searched to identify English-language publications through 1 November 2019, including randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and nested case-control (or case-cohort) studies with data on tea consumption and risk of incident cardiovascular events (cardiac or peripheral vascular events), stroke events (including mortality), CVD-specific mortality, or all-cause mortality. Data from 39 prospective cohort publications were synthesized. Linear meta-regression showed that each cup (236.6 mL)  increase in daily tea consumption (estimated 280 mg  and 338 mg  total flavonoids/d for black and green tea, respectively) was associated with an average 4% lower risk of CVD mortality, a 2% lower risk of CVD events, a 4% lower risk of stroke, and a 1.5% lower risk of all-cause mortality. Subgroup meta-analysis results showed that the magnitude of association was larger in elderly individuals for both CVD mortality (n = 4; pooled adjusted RR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96; P = 0.001), with large heterogeneity (I2 = 72.4%), and all-cause mortality (n = 3; pooled adjusted RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.94; P < 0.0001; I2 = 0.3%). Generally, studies with higher risk of bias appeared to show larger magnitudes of associations than studies with lower risk of bias. Strength of evidence was rated as low and moderate (depending on study population age group) for CVD-specific mortality outcome and was rated as low for CVD events, stroke, and all-cause mortality outcomes. Daily tea intake as part of a healthy habitual dietary pattern may be associated with lower risks of CVD and all-cause mortality among adults.

Keywords: tea, Camellia sinensis, cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, systematic review


Topic: flavonoids, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular accident, ischemic stroke, heterogeneity, tea, mortality, green tea



The majority of tea studies have relied on neuropsychological measures, and much fewer on neuroimaging measures, especially for interregional connections. To date, there has been no exploration of the effect of tea on system-level brain networks. We recruited healthy older participants to two groups according to their history of tea drinking frequency and investigated both functional and structural networks to reveal the role of tea drinking on brain organization. The results showed that tea drinking gave rise to the more efficient structural organization, but had no significant beneficial effect on the global functional organization. The suppression of hemispheric asymmetry in the structural connectivity network was observed as a result of tea drinking. We did not observe any significant effects of tea drinking on the hemispheric asymmetry of the functional connectivity network. In addition, functional connectivity strength within the default mode network (DMN) was greater for the tea-drinking group, and coexistence of increasing and decreasing connective strengths was observed in the structural connectivity of the DMN. Our study offers the first evidence of the positive contribution of tea drinking to brain structure and suggests a protective effect on age-related decline in brain organisation.



Pu-erh tea was presumed to have anti-hyperglycaemic effects with limited evidence.  This study uses metaanalysis to investigate anti-hyperglycaemic effect of Pu-erh tea.  Five English databases and three Chinese ones were systematically searched up to July 31, 2018.  Those databases were searched to identify studies containing keywords of ‘Pu-erh’, ‘Pu’er’, ‘blood sugar’, ‘blood glucose’ and ‘hyperglycaemia’.  RevMan 5 and Stata were then utilized to conduct meta-analysis.  Systematic reviews collected two mice studies with sixteen records for meta-analysis.  Meta-analysis results showed that Pu-erh tea has significant anti-hyperglycaemic effect on mice.  Pooled weight mean difference of blood sugar on mice studies were 71 and 116 mg dL1 at 21st day and 28th day respectively.  Meta-regression disclosed over a longer intervention period showed that Pu-erh tea can reduce fasting blood glucose.  Secondly, a higher dose of Pu-erh is shown to lower fasting blood glucose more significantly.


Keywords: Blood sugar, meta-analysis, Pu-erh tea, systematic review.


"Nutraceuticals" are well-tolerated natural dietary compounds with drug-like properties that make them attractive as Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics. Combination therapy for AD has garnered attention following a recent National Institute on Aging mandate, but this approach has not yet been fully validated. In this report, we combined the two most promising nutraceuticals with complementary anti-amyloidogenic properties: the plant-derived phenolics (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, an α-secretase activator) and ferulic acid (FA, a β-secretase modulator). We used transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid β-protein precursor and presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) to model cerebral amyloidosis. At 12 months of age, we orally administered EGCG and/or FA (30 mg/kg each) or vehicle once daily for 3 months. At 15 months, combined EGCG-FA treatment reversed cognitive impairment in most tests of learning and memory, including novel object recognition and maze tasks. Moreover, EGCG- and FA-treated APP/PS1 mice exhibited amelioration of brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular β-amyloid deposits and decreased abundance of amyloid β-proteins compared with either EGCG or FA single treatment. Combined treatment elevated nonamyloidogenic soluble APP-α and α-secretase candidate and down-regulated amyloidogenic soluble APP-β, β-C-terminal APP fragment, and β-secretase protein expression, providing evidence for a shift toward nonamyloidogenic APP processing. Additional beneficial co-treatment effects included amelioration of neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and synaptotoxicity. Our findings offer preclinical evidence that combined treatment with EGCG and FA is a promising AD therapeutic approach.

KEYWORDS: Alzheimer disease; flavonoid; amyloid precursor protein (APP); amyloid-beta (AB); secretase; transgenic mice; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; nonamyloidogenic; phenol; plant; polyphenol


Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT). In hypertriglyceridaemic hamsters, FGT administration significantly reduced plasma TAG levels. In mice, FGT administration (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks augmented energy expenditure by 22 % through the induction of plasma serotonin, a neurotransmitter that modulates energy expenditure and mRNA expressions of lipid metabolism genes in peripheral tissues. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that FGT reduced the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes in hamsters, which could further contribute to its anti-obesity effects. Collectively, these data demonstrate that FGT decreases plasma TAG levels via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of pancreatic lipase, augmentation of energy expenditure, induction of serotonin secretion and alteration of gut microbiota. These results suggest that FGT may be a useful natural agent for preventing hypertriglyceridaemia and obesity.


Dementia and diabetes mellitus are prevalent disorders in the elderly population. While recognized as two distinct diseases, diabetes has more recently recognized as a significant contributor to risk for developing dementia, and some studies make reference to type 3 diabetes, a condition resulting from insulin resistance in the brain. Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, and diabetes, interestingly, share underlying pathological processes, commonality in risk factors, and, importantly, pathways for intervention. Tea has been suggested to possess potent antioxidant properties. It is rich in phytochemicals including, flavonoids, tannins, caffeine, polyphenols, boheic acid, theophylline, theobromine, anthocyanins, gallic acid, and finally epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is considered to be the most potent active ingredient. Flavonoid phytochemicals, known as catechins, within tea offer potential benefits for reducing the risk of diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease by targeting common risk factors, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Studies also show that catechins may prevent the formation of amyloid-β plaques and enhance cognitive functions, and thus may be useful in treating patients who have Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. Furthermore, other phytochemicals found within tea offer important antioxidant properties along with innate properties capable of modulating intracellular neuronal signal transduction pathways and mitochondrial function.


Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, phytochemicals, tea


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.


Both in vitro and in vivo tests have confirmed that green tea catechins, black tea theaflavins and polysaccharides and caffeine in both green tea and black tea showed antidiabetic effects on T2DM. Most of the epidemiologic studies showed daily consumption of green tea, black tea and oolong tea and dietary supplements of EGCG have beneficial effects on T2DM. Table 1 summarizes the epidemiological evidence for the association between tea drinking and the risk of T2DM.

Tea and its extract play an antidiabetes role by alleviating oxidative stress, inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, improving endothelial disfunction, modulating cytokine expression, ameliorating insulin resistance, suppressing hyperglycemia, improving hyperglycemic complications, regulating signaling pathway involving in DM, enhancing immunity and alleviating diabetes-induced damages of neural cells.


Keywords: Camellia sinensis; tea catechins; tea polysaccharides; caffeine; diabetes mellitus; epidemiological analysis



Pu-erh tea, made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, possesses activities beneficial for human health, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-obesity properties.



We investigated the effects of a pu-erh tea extract (PTE) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects.



Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 17 weeks, during which PTE was simultaneously administered in drinking water. Body weight, hepatic inflammation, steatosis, insulin sensitivity, expression of lipogenesis- and gluconeogenesis-associated genes, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 phosphorylation were examined. The anti-steatotic effects of PTE and/or interleukin (IL)-6 were evaluated in HepG2 cells. The lipid accumulation, STAT3 phosphorylation, and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes were analyzed.



PTE inhibited HFD-induced obesity and significantly attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation, and prevented against liver injury. PTE treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, PTE treatment maintained the intact insulin signal and significantly decreased expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes in the livers of HFD-fed mice. PTE treatment strikingly enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation in the livers of HFD-fed mice. Consistent with this increase in STAT3 phosphorylation, pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with PTE enhanced IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and attenuated oleic acid-induced steatosis in a STAT3-dependent manner. In contrast, PTE inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in macrophages.


PTE ameliorates hepatic lipid metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance in mice with HFD-induced NASH, presumably by modulating hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling.

Keywords: PTE STAT3 NASH Insulin resistance 



Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an obesity-related disorder characterized by lipid infiltration of the liver. Management is limited to lifestyle modifications, highlighting the need for alternative therapeutic options. The objective of this study was to examine if fermented Fuzhuan tea prevents metabolic impairments associated with development of hepatic steatosis.

Methods and results

Rats consumed control (CON) or high saturated fat (SAT) diets with or without Fuzhuan tea for 8 weeks. Outcomes included enzymatic and gene expression measures of metabolic dysregulation in liver and adipose tissue. Pyrosequencing was used to assess intestinal microbiota adaptations. Fuzhuan tea prevented diet-induced inflammation in the liver. Liver triglycerides of ∼18 mg/g were observed in SAT-fed animals, but remained similar to CON diet levels (∼12 mg/g) when supplemented with Fuzhuan tea. In adipose tissue, tea treatment prevented SAT-induced inflammation and reduced plasma leptin approximately twofold. Fuzhuan tea also altered intestinal function and was associated with a threefold increase in two Lactobacillus spp.


These data suggest that Fuzhuan tea protects against liver and adipose tissue stress induced by a high SAT diet and positively influences intestinal function. Further investigation of the molecular targets of Fuzhuan tea is warranted.


Theabrownin (TB), one of the main bioactive components in pu-erh tea, has a significant blood lipid-lowering effect in hyperlipidemic rats. Therefore, it was hypothesized that TB would regulate the activity of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism and accelerate the catabolism of exogenous cholesterol in rats fed a high fat diet. A total of 90 Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (Group I), a high fat diet group (Group II), and high-fat diet plus TB group (Group III). A total of 10 rats were selected from each group and killed at 15, 30, or 45 d after starting the study for analysis. After feeding 45 d, the contents of TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in Group II were increased by 54.9%, 93.1%, and 134.3% compared with those in Group III, respectively, and the content of HDL-C in Group II was decreased by 55.7%. These effects were inhibited in the rats in Group III, which exhibited no significant differences in these levels compared with Group I, indicating that TB can prevent hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high fat diet. TB enhanced the activity of hepatic lipase and hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase (HSL) and increased the HSL mRNA expression in liver tissue and epididymis tissue. The HL activity in serum of Group III was increased by 147.6% compared with that in Group II. The content of cholesterol and bile acid in the feces of rats was increased by 21.11- and 4.08-fold by TB. It suggested that TB could promote the transformation and excretion of dietary cholesterol of rats in vivo.


It was found that TB can prevent hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high fat diet via enhanced the activity of hepatic lipase and hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase (HSL) and increased the HSL mRNA expression in liver tissue and epididymis tissue. TB also had potential to prevent the absorption of exogenous cholesterol in diet of rats in vivo. Our results also indicate that TB is one of the most important bioactive ingredients in pu-erh tea that lowers serum lipid levels.

Keywords: hepatic lipase (HL), hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase (HSL), hyperlipidemia, reaction mechanism, theabrownin


Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, next only to water. It can be categorized into three types, depending on the level of fermentation, i.e., green (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented) and black (fermented) tea. In general, green tea has been found to be superior to black tea in terms of antioxidant activity owing to the higher content of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. The processes used in the manufacture of black tea are known to decrease levels of the monometric catechins to a much greater extent than the less severe conditions applied to other teas. The cardioprotective effect of flavonoids from green tea can be attributed to not only antioxidant, antithrombogenic and anti-inflammatory properties but also improvement of coronary flow velocity reserve. In this article, I will discuss the effects of green tea on atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, and, finally, its comparison with black tea.


Keywords: Tea, Green tea, Chinese green tea, Cardiovascular health


To explore the function of probiotic bacteria in puer tea pile fermentation which was implemented by a symbiosis of many fermenting microbes and enzymes, the species, abundances and dynamics of probiotic bacteria were quantitatively investigated. Using the real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers specifically targeting different genera bacteria, the results showed that Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus spp., Lactobacillus group and Bacillus spp. were all found at 0, 15, 30, and 45 days during the fermentation, but Bifidobacterium spp. was not involved throughout the fermentation. Furthermore, among these four genera, Lactococcus spp. was the predominant probiotic with population of 1.68 × 109–2.78 × 109 copy g−1 in the fermentation, followed by Enterococcus spp. harboring 3.43 × 104–6.25 × 105 copy g−1, and Lactobacillus group and Bacillus spp. had 4.26 × 103–5.17 × 104 and 2.21 × 103–2.31 × 105 copy g−1, respectively. In addition, the dynamics of four genera probiotic bacteria and universal bacteria were explored to show completely different and complex change trends with no significant correlation with pH of tea and each other. Population dynamic studies of probiotic bacteria revealed their ecological feature and importance for puer tea pile fermentation, and also facilitated further exploration of probiotic resources and health benefits of puer tea.


Keywords: Dynamic change, Pile fermentation, Probiotic bacteria, Puer tea, Real-time quantitative PCR


A healthy diet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition without exposure to toxicity. Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have shown inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. It is consumed in different forms namely green, black and oolong tea. Tea is used in the management of different types of cancers including Oral Cancer. Micronuclei (MN) act as a cancer biomarker. The present review focuses on the antioxidants of various tea and their mechanism of protective effects on oral cancer.

Keywords: Tea, Polyphenols, Micronuclei, Oral Cancer


Objective: Investigation of the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture on weight maintenance after body weight loss in moderately obese subjects in relation to habitual caffeine intake.

Research Methods and Procedures: A randomized placebo-controlled double blind parallel trial in 76 overweight and moderately obese subjects, (BMI, 27.5 ± 2.7 kg/m2) matched for sex, age, BMI, height, body mass, and habitual caffeine intake was conducted. A very low energy diet intervention during 4 weeks was followed by 3 months of weight maintenance (WM); during the WM period, the subjects received a green tea-caffeine mixture (270 mg epigallocatechin gallate + 150 mg caffeine per day) or placebo.

Results: Subjects lost 5.9 ±1.8 (SD) kg (7.0 ± 2.1%) of body weight (p < 0.001). At baseline, satiety was positively, and in women, leptin was inversely, related to subjects’ habitual caffeine consumption (p < 0.01). High caffeine consumers reduced weight, fat mass, and waist circumference more than low caffeine consumers; resting energy expenditure was reduced less and respiratory quotient was reduced more during weight loss (p < 0.01). In the low caffeine consumers, during WM, green tea still reduced body weight, waist, respiratory quotient and body fat, whereas resting energy expenditure was increased compared with a restoration of these variables with placebo (p < 0.01). In the high caffeine consumers, no effects of the green tea-caffeine mixture were observed during WM.


Discussion: High caffeine intake was associated with weight loss through thermogenesis and fat oxidation and with suppressed leptin in women. In habitual low caffeine consumers, the green tea-caffeine mixture improved WM (weight maintenance), partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation.


Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was three to four cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: (i) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) activating AMP-activated protein kinase by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMP-activated protein kinase would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated.


As consumption of tea has been confirmed as a protective factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it would be interesting to know if T2DM patients could benefit from tea. Because of small sample sizes and inconsistent results of previous studies, we performed this meta-analysis to reevaluate the effects of tea or tea extract on all available outcomes in patients with T2DM. We systematically searched electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE to identify randomized controlled trials of tea in T2DM patients up to January 2015. Weight mean differences for the changes in all outcomes were pooled by Review Manager 5.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England). A total of ten trials including 608 subjects were identified. The meta-analysis found that tea could alleviate the decrease of fasting blood insulin [1.30 U/L, 95% CI (0.36, 2.24)], and reduced waist circumference only in more than 8-week intervention [−2.70 cm, 95% CI (−4.72, −0.69)], whereas there were no statistically significant differences with regard to homeostasis model of insulin resistance 0.38 (−0.18, 0.95), fasting blood glucose −0.05 mmol/L (−0.51, 0.40), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 0.07 mmol/L (−0.15, 0.29), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol 0.01 mmol/L (−0.08, 0.09), body mass index −0.15 kg/m2(−0.50, 0.21), SBP 0.35 mmHg (−3.54, 4.24), DBP −1.02 mmHg (−3.53, 1.48), triglycerides −0.11 mmol/L (−0.28, 0.05) and fasting cholesterol −0.05 mmol/L (−0.20, 0.11) in patients with T2DM, and leptin, ADPN, CRE and UA were also non-significant. The intervention of tea or tea extraction could maintain a stable fasting blood insulin and reduce waist circumference in the T2DM patients; however, the effects on other outcomes were not significant.


A comparative study was undertaken to determine the difference in quality, antioxidant activity, and mineral content of northern and southern Indian tea varieties. The results showed that the antioxidant activity, theaflavin and thearubigin content, color particle size and total soluble solids influence the tea leaf and tea dust. Assam leaf showed higher values for all the physico-chemical properties followed by Darjeeling leaf. In addition, the mineral composition of the tea infusion was also influenced. The preparation method, including the amounts of tea and water used, infusion time was shown to be a major determinant of the component concentrations of tea beverages as consumed. An illustration of the variation introduced by these varieties of tea is provided by comparing solids, caffeine, minerals and antioxidant activity of black teas available locally.


Keywords: Total polyphenols, Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Antioxidant activity, Caffeine, Mineral content 

Abstract: Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against cancer, obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and dental caries. The catechin (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown the highest biological activity among green tea catechins (GTCs) in most of the studies. While several epidemiological studies have shown the beneficial effects of tea and GTCs on obesity, some studies have failed to do this. In addition, a large number of interventional clinical studies have shown these favorable effects, and cellular and animal experiments have supported those findings, and revealed the underlying anti-obesity mechanisms. One of the mechanisms is enhanced cellular production of reactive oxygen species, which is mediated through the pro-oxidant action of EGCG, leading to the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which suppresses gene and protein expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis, and stimulates those involved in lipolysis. Recently, scientific evidence supporting the beneficial anti-obesity effects of green tea and GTCs has been increasing. However, future investigations are still required to clarify the reasons for the inconsistent results reported in the human studies; to achieve this, careful adjustment of confounding factors will be required.


Keywords: green tea; catechin; obesity; adipogenesis; lipogenesis; lipolysis; AMPK


Background: Green tea has been suggested to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors, including circulating lipid variables. However, current evidence is predominantly based on small, short-term randomized controlled trials conducted in diverse populations.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and impact of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation high in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on blood lipids in healthy postmenopausal women.


Design: This was an ancillary study of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm trial investigating the effects of a GTE supplement containing 1315 mg catechins (843 mg EGCG) on biomarkers of breast cancer risk. Participants were randomly assigned to receive GTE (n = 538) or placebo (n = 537) and were stratified by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype activity (high COMT compared with low or intermediate COMT genotype activity). They consumed either 4 GTE or identical placebo capsules daily for 12 mo. A total of 936 women completed this substudy. Circulating lipid panels including total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured at baseline and at months 6 and 12.


Results: Compared with placebo, 1-y supplementation with GTE capsules resulted in a significant reduction in circulating TC (−2.1% compared with 0.7%; P = 0.0004), LDL cholesterol (−4.1% compared with 0.9%; P < 0.0001) and non-HDL cholesterol (−3.1% compared with 0.4%; P = 0.0032). There was no change in HDL-cholesterol concentration, but triglyceride concentrations increased by 3.6% in the GTE group, whereas they decreased by 2.5% in the placebo group (P = 0.046). A significant reduction in TC was observed only among women with high (i.e., ≥200 mg/dL) baseline TC concentrations (P-interaction = 0.01) who consumed GTE capsules. The effect of GTE on the increase in triglycerides was mainly observed among obese women and statin users (P-interaction = 0.06).


Conclusion: Supplementation with GTE significantly reduced circulating TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, especially in those with elevated baseline TC concentrations. This trial was registered at as NCT00917735.



Alzheimer’s disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder in elderly. This study was aimed to systematically evaluate the association between tea intake and the risk of cognitive disorders by meta-analysis.

Methods and Findings

PubMed, Embase and Wanfang databases were systematically searched and a total of 26 observational studies were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled by using fixed or random effects models according to the degree of heterogeneity.


The overall pooled analysis indicated that tea intake could significantly reduce the risk of cognitive disorders (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.73). Subgroup analyses were conducted based on study design, population, frequency of tea drinking and type of cognitive disorders. The results showed that tea drinking was significantly associated with the reduced incidence of cognitive disorders in all of subgroups based on study design and frequency of tea drinking. In particular, tea drinking was inversely associated with the risk of cognitive impairment (CoI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), cognitive decline and ungrouped cognitive disorders. Moreover, for population subgroups, the significant association was only found in Chinese people.


Our study suggests that daily tea drinking is associated with decreased risk of CoI, MCI and cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the association between tea intake and Alzheimer’s disease remains elusive.


Objectives: To examine the relationships between tea consumption habits and incident 
neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and explore potential effect modification by gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.


Design: Population-based longitudinal study. Setting: The Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS). Participants: 957 community-living Chinese elderly who were cognitively intact at baseline.


Measurements: We collected tea consumption information at baseline from 2003 to 2005 and ascertained incident cases of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) from 2006 to 2010. Odds ratio (OR) of association were calculated in logistic regression models that adjusted for potential confounders.


Results: A total of 72 incident NCD cases were identified from the cohort. Tea intake was associated with lower risk of incident NCD, independent of other risk factors. Reduced NCD risk was observed for both green tea (OR=0.43) and black/oolong tea (OR=0.53) and appeared to be influenced by the changing of tea consumption habit at follow-up. Using consistent non- tea consumers as the reference, only consistent tea consumers had reduced risk of NCD (OR=0.39). Stratified analyses indicated that tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of NCD among females (OR=0.32) and APOE ε4 carriers (OR=0.14) but not males and non APOE ε4 carriers.


Conclusion: Regular tea consumption was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive disorders among Chinese elderly. Gender and genetic factors could possibly modulate this association.

Key words: Tea, aging, neurocognitive disorders, Chinese, cohort study.

Abstract: Tea is the most popular beverages all over the world. Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in tea leaves and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea leaves and received great attention due to their protective role in the prevention of the diseases. Rather than eliciting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which tea polyphenol express these beneficial properties appear to involve their interaction with cellular signaling pathways and related machinery that mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. The central focus of this review is to provide an overview of the role that the major tea polyphenol, EGCG plays in preventing cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. This review present epidemiological data, human intervention study findings, as well as animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and delineates the molecular mechanism associated with the action of EGCG in ameliorating of such diseases.  Indeed, EGCG and green tea are potent inhibitors and are orally available pharmacological agents that may be effective in preventing various types of disease such as cancer, heart and neurodegenerative diseases.


Keywords: EGCG, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases, Diabetes, Neurodegenerative diseases

Abstract:  Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, and despite desperate attempts, many patients still suffer from poor prognosis. Hence, efforts for discovering and developing more potent and effective anticancer agents continue. A growing body of research and experiments indicates the potential of some medicinal plants as a possible source of anticancer agents. In recent years, the health benefits of consuming green tea (derived from the plant Camellia sinensis) have been extensively documented. The ailments which can be treated and/or prevented include different types of cancer, heart and liver diseases, and neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. Many of these beneficial effects are related to tea catechins, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) content. Green tea consumption is also linked to the prevention of many types of cancer including breast, prostate, lung, colon, and stomach cancers. Moreover, cancer rates in Asian countries such as Japan and China where green tea is consumed in large quantities are significantly low according to epidemiological studies. These associations are confirmed by experiments with animals as well as cultured cancer cells. The use of EGCG instead of crude green tea extracts permitted studies to elucidate the mode of anticancer of green tea. Clinical studies demonstrating the prevention of cancer by green tea or by EGCG were recently questioned. The use of the nontoxic green tea or EGCG as anticancer agent is highly recommended.

Abstract:  Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

Summary:  In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free bodymass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

In the present study, the efficacy of black tea (BT) and green tea (GT) was studied in relation to serum and hepatic oxidative abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in male Wistar rats (8 week old) by feeding them with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 35 days. The experimental rats were given BT and GT as a supplement (7 g/L) via drinking water. Increased hepatic and serum lipid profile along with abnormalities in oxidative marker, with a concomitant increase in the body weight, food intake, and food efficiency, were seen in hypercholesterolemic rats. Following the supplementation of BT and GT to rats fed with HCD, significantly lower levels of serum and hepatic cholesterol, triglycerides, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed, when compared with hypercholesterolemic group. Further, significantly lower levels in the serum and hepatic lipid peroxidation, body weight gain, and food efficiency were observed in BT and GT group when compared with control and HCD fed group. However, no such significant changes were observed in the food intake upon supplementation with BT and GT. These results suggest that supplementation of BT and GT may protect against the serum and hepatic abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rats.



Hypercholesterolemia, Black tea, Green tea, Oxidative stress


Tea is the most consumed drink in the world after water. Green tea is a ‘non-fermented’ tea, and contains more catechins, than black tea or oolong tea. Catechins are in vitro and in vivo strong antioxidants. In addition, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potential of this type of tea. Since ancient times, green tea has been considered by the traditional Chinese medicine as a healthful beverage. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health and other physiological functions such as anti-hypertensive effect, body weight control, antibacterial and antivirasic activity, solar ultraviolet protection, bone mineral density increase, anti-fibrotic properties, and neuroprotective power. Increasing interest in its health benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of beverages with functional properties. However, although all the evidence from research on green tea is very promising, future studies are necessary to fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets, in which green tea consumption is nowadays limited and sporadic.

Keywords: green teapolyphenolscatechinsantioxidant activityhuman health


Tea consumption is varying its status from a mere ancient beverage and a lifestyle habit, to a nutrient endowed with possible prospective neurobiological–pharmacological actions beneficial to human health. Accumulating evidence suggest that oxidative stress resulting in reactive oxygen species generation and inflammation play a pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases, supporting the implementation of radical scavengers, transition metal (e.g., iron and copper) chelators, and nonvitamin natural antioxidant polyphenols in the clinic. These observations are in line with the current view that polyphenolic dietary supplementation may have an impact on cognitive deficits in individuals of advanced age. As a consequence, green tea polyphenols are now being considered as therapeutic agents in well controlled epidemiological studies, aimed to alter brain aging processes and to serve as possible neuroprotective agents in progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In particular, literature on the putative novel neuroprotective mechanism of the major green tea polyphenol, ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, are examined and discussed in this review.


Keywords: Green tea; ()-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate; Neuroprotection; Antioxidation; Iron chelating; Neurodegenerative diseases

Abstract:  Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT). In hypertriglyceridaemic hamsters, FGT administration significantly reduced plasma TAG levels. In mice, FGT administration (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks augmented energy expenditure by 22 % through the induction of plasma serotonin, a neurotransmitter that modulates energy expenditure and mRNA expressions of lipid metabolism genes in peripheral tissues. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that FGT reduced the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes in hamsters, which could further contribute to its anti-obesity effects. Collectively, these data demonstrate that FGT decreases plasma TAG levels via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of pancreatic lipase, augmentation of energy expenditure, induction of serotonin secretion and alteration of gut microbiota. These results suggest that FGT may be a useful natural agent for preventing hypertriglyceridaemia and obesity.

Abstract: Besides cancer prevention, the hypolipidemic effects of tea have been well studied in animals and humans. Recently, statin has been identified in Pu-erh tea extract. Clinical trials have confirmed that statin decreases the incidence of major coronary and cerebrovascular events and this may be due to its hypolipidemic and antiinflammatory effects. Since a good Pu-erh tea needs longer storage (10 years or more) of fermentation to enhance the flavor and fragrance, we screened microorganisms from two Pu-erh teas, 20 and 25 years old. Species of fungi and bacteria strains that contributed to a good taste of Pu-erh tea were isolated. The effect of fermentation was investigated by inoculating fresh tea leaves with individual strains of isolated microorganisms. Results showed that statin, total polyphenol content, and the scavenging activities of R,R-diphenyl- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased during fermentation. Tea leaves inoculated with Streptomyces bacillaris strain R9 had the highest polyphenol content (3.3 mg/100 g) and scavenging ability to DPPH radicals (92%). Streptomyces cinereus strain Y11 was equally good for polyphenol content but yielded the highest amount of statin (1012 ng/g) after 42 days of fermentation. Interestingly, the statin content of fresh tea leaves fermented with strain R9 or Y11 after 180 days was much higher (4- and 8-fold, respectively) than that of the 25-year-old Pu-erh tea (513 ng/g) as measured by the HPLC method. Similarly, these two strains also increased the content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 5.7- and 4.7-fold in tea fermented for 180 days as compared with the fresh leaves (1270 μg/g) and that were higher than that of the Pu-erh tea (4900 μg/g). Taken together, the present results indicate that tea short-term fermented with S. bacillaris or S. cinereus enhances the color and content of statin, GABA, and polyphenols.

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Abstract: Green tea catechins, including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are oxidized and dimerized during the manufacture of black tea and oolong tea to form orange-red pigments, theaflavins (TF), a mixture of theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3*-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3*-digallate (TF3). The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of individual TF with that of each catechin using human LDL oxidation as a model. All catechins and TF tested inhibited Cu12-mediated LDL oxidation. Analysis of the thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes produced during LDL oxidation revealed that the antioxidant activity was in the order: TF3 > ECG > EGCG ¸ TF2B ¸ TF2A > TF1 ¸ EC > EGC. Four TF derivatives also demonstrated a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in Cu12-mediated LDL oxidation at concentrations of 5–40 mmol/L. These results demonstrate that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechins to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical–scavenging activity.

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Abstract:  A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R2 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmol GAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmol TE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmol TE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

Keywords:  Green tea, Re-infusion, Brewing conditions, Camellia sinensis, ORAC, NanoCerac, Temperature, Time, Growing location, Harvest season, Loose leaf, Bagged, Catechin, Antioxidant, Polyphenol

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